Work of the past, work of the future

Work of days gone by, work into the future

David Autor

Labour markets in US cities today are vastly more educated and skill-intensive than these were 50 years back, but urban non-college workers now perform significantly less skilled work than they did. This column demonstrates automation and international trade have eliminated most of the mid-skilled non-college jobs which were disproportionately located in cities. It has contributed to a secular fall in real non-college wages.

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Worker churn and employment growth at the establishment level

Worker churn and employment growth at the establishment level: Evidence from Germany

Rudiger Bachmann, Christian Bayer, Christian Merkl, Stefan Seth, Heiko Stuber, Felix Wellschmied

Many establishments both hire and lay off within a short while window, leading to ‘churn’. This column runs on the newly constructed dataset showing that the rate of churn in Germany is high and will depend on 40% greater in booms in comparison to recessions. Both establishments that are shrinking and the ones that are growing hire more and lay off more in booms than in recessions.

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Women’s work, housework, and childcare before and during covid-19

Women’s work, housework, and childcare before and during COVID-19

Daniela Del Boca, Noemi Oggero, Paola Profeta, Mariacristina Rossi

The social distancing measures adopted to slow the spread of COVID-19 have placed a specific burden on families. Using survey data collected in April 2020 from a representative sample of Italian women, this column asks how working at home – coupled with school closures – has affected the working arrangements, housework, and childcare provisions of couples where both partners are used. The majority of the additional responsibilities have fallen to women, though childcare activities are shared more equally than housework.

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Work after covid a new regime for independent workers

Work after COVID: A fresh regime for independent workers

Eduardo Levy Yeyati, Luca Sartorio

The policy tools being used to stabilise incomes through the COVID-19 lockdowns provides job and payment protection for formal, salaried workers. However in the developing world, these workers take into account only half of the labour force. This column talks about the spouse: the ‘independent’ workers who’ve not merely seen their incomes reduced, but who possess several benefits linked with jobs – from reliable hours to severance pay and social security. If disparities in labour markets go unaddressed, the pandemic will deepen the toll on poverty and inequality.

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Women’s rights what’s in it for men

Pessimists argue that differences in gender discrimination across countries are because of cultural and religious factors that neither can nor ought to be addressed by policy. But this view clashes with a significant observation: When today’s rich countries were still poor, the state of women’s rights in these countries was just as bleak since it is in the poorest countries today. For instance, before mid-nineteenth century, ladies in England and america lost almost all their civil rights upon marriage. Husbands had full control over their wives’ property and earnings, only men could get yourself a divorce, and married women didn’t have any rights regarding their legitimate children.

The problem improved only in the next half of the nineteenth century, when England and america started a number of reforms that ultimately resulted in the present day state of equality prior to the law. The rapid advance of women’s rights in today’s rich countries shows that it isn’t some immutable cultural reason that explains cross-country differences in gender equality, but an interaction of women’s rights with the development process itself.

Understanding what triggered reforms of women’s rights in Western countries can inform our considering how gender equality may be realised in developing countries today. In recent research, we go through the driving forces behind the first phase of the expansion of women’s rights in England and america (Doepke and Tertilt 2008). From about 1850 onwards, various legislatures in both countries passed laws that dramatically improved women’s rights in the regions of divorce law, infant custody law, and marital property law. Interestingly, these reforms occurred a long time before women gained the proper to vote. 1 All of the reform laws of the period were passed by all-male legislatures which were accountable and then male voters. This fact shows that to describe the expansion of women’s rights, we have to concentrate on the views and attitudes of men.

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Women’s liberation as a financial innovation

Consider the perverse incentives that coverture created. It could have already been imprudent for an individual woman to put profit a bank, or even to hold any other asset except real property, because her husband to be would you need to it from her. Parents who wished to give their daughters gifts or bequests could have been equally hesitant to place profit a bank, and could have used property instead.

Less overall deposited in banks would also imply that less overall was lent by banks, an unfortunate outcome through the industrial revolution. We study the implications for financial markets on growth, but Kahn (1996) also discovered that women’s property rights resulted in further patenting by women while Geddes et al. (2012) discovered that these rights resulted in further investment in girls’ education. In some papers, Koudijs and Salisbury (2016, 2018) and Koudijs et al. (2018) studied the consequences of laws that exempted a married woman’s assets from her husband’s creditors, on risk taking, and marital sorting.

Married women received property rights in america state-by-state (Geddes and Lueck 2002), that allows us to compare economic outcomes in states that granted rights to the ones that didn’t. Massachusetts (1846) was the first state to provide women rights. By 1920 all but four states had followed suit.

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Women’s inheritance evidence from india

As the underlying social and cultural dynamics are complex, legislative reform to boost women’s inheritance rights may potentially give a low-cost way to lessen gender discrimination and improve a variety of socioeconomic outcomes for women. State-level reform of inheritance laws in India has an interesting natural experiment for exploring whether also to what extent such efforts have already been effective. In 1994, the states of Karnataka and Maharashtra amended the Hindu Succession Act, granting daughters equal shares in inheritance in accordance with sons which were denied to daughters previously. The results of the reform could provide potentially important lessons for India, where similar, national-level changes were manufactured in 2005, and for countries where inheritance rights remain severely biased against women. The passing of sufficient time because the amendment was enacted, and the option of unique data over three generations, allow assessment of the impact of the legal change on women’s asset endowment and socioeconomic outcomes.

In a recently available paper (Deininger et al. 2010), we use data from the 2006 nationally representative Rural Economic and Demographic Survey, conducted by the National Council of Applied Economic Research, on 1,371 rural Hindu households in Karnataka and Maharashtra. The survey contains detailed information on the parents, siblings, and children of household heads, providing quantitative measures of intergenerational transfers of both physical and human capital investments.

The causal effect is isolated by exploiting the variation in the timing of father’s death to compare within household bequests of land directed at sons and daughters in both states. We find that as the amendment didn’t fully get rid of the underlying inequality, it increased women’s probability of inheriting land by 22 percentage points. Even where the actual inheritance isn’t yet observed, the actual fact that a woman can get to inherit property may increase her bargaining power or affect her marital prospects. Indeed, we look for a robust upsurge in women’s age at marriage (by 0.5 years) following the reform, and women achieved better outcomes in the marriage market, such as for example marrying at a later age, marrying a far more educated spouse, and having the capacity to make favourable reproductive decisions.

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Women, work, and socialism

Women, work, and socialism

Pamela Campa, Michel Serafinelli

Attitudes towards work and gender simultaneously shape, and so are shaped by, the conventions, practices, and policies in confirmed place and time. This column explores how politico-economic regimes affect attitudes towards gender roles and labour, exploiting the rise and fall of the Iron Curtain. Results show that ladies in state-socialist regimes tended to have less negative and less traditional views of work and labour force participation.

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Women’s health and economic development

The returns to education increase both through lower morbidity – enabling greater labour market participation at the intensive margin – and lower mortality – affecting labour market participation at the extensive margin (Jayachandran and Lleras-Muney 2009).

In Bloom et al. (2015), we create a micro-founded dynamic general equilibrium model which allows for a different health status of women and men, and that considers a few of the outlined mechanisms by which improvements in women’s health can stimulate economic development. We utilize this model to review the conditions under that your economy switches from a low-growth regime, corresponding to a poverty trap with high fertility no educational investments, to today’s sustained growth regime with declining fertility and increasing educational investments. We show that investments targeted solely at men’s health will probably have unwanted effects on the timing of the demographic transition, the takeoff to sustained growth, and on the economic growth rate following the transition. In comparison, investments in women’s health increase the demographic transition, the economic takeoff, and the post-transition rate of economic growth. While an equiproportional upsurge in the fitness of both sexes leaves the growth rate unaffected before takeoff, it moderately raises it following the transition, a discovering that is based on the results reported by Cervellati and Sunde (2011). Furthermore, equiproportional health improvements help increase the economic transition.

As well, however, we show that unitary households would like improvements in men’s health over improvements in women’s health due to higher static income gains. Our results therefore imply there are necessary tradeoffs between your short-run interests of households and the long-run effects on economic development.

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Women shaping global economic governance a new ebook

Women shaping global economic governance: A fresh eBook

Arancha Gonzalez, Marion Jansen

Economic governance is confronting the unfolding of three tectonic shifts: an electronic revolution, an environmental revolution, and a social revolution. We are seeing the return of geopolitics. This column introduces a fresh book from CEPR, the International Trade Centre and the European University Institute that collects insights from 28 women policymakers and thought leaders on how best to shape something of global governance with the capacity of managing those shifts and of rebuilding trust that voters may actually have lost in lots of countries.

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